Q) What is Schizophrenia?
It is a brain disorder marked by severe impairment in thoughts, emotions and behavior. Some symptoms include delusions, hallucinations and incoherence.
Q) What is Depression?
It is a serious medical illness in which prolonged state of sad mood prevails that affects one’s thoughts, behavior, feelings and physical health. Major Depression may show symptoms of depressed mood, fatigue, suicidal ideations, altered appetite and sleep patterns, poor concentration.
Q) What is an Anxiety Disorder?
Anxiety Disorder is an umbrella term that includes Panic disorder, OCD, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Phobias and Social Anxiety Disorder. It is a mental illness that causes an individual to feel excessive fear, distress or uneasiness during situations that normally others would not feel the same way.
Q) What is Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)?
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a disorder of the brain and behavior. OCD causes severe anxiety in those affected. OCD involves both obsessions (excessive continuous thoughts) and compulsions (repetitive act) that take a lot of time and get in the way of important activities the person values. It can be extremely distressful to the person if not treated.
Q) What is Bipolar Disorder?
It is a mood disorder in which there is an abnormal shift in the mood and energy level of a person. The mood will fluctuate from depression to mania. Usually moods are normal in between the peaks. Bipolar Disorder is very debilitating and incapacitating.
Q) What to expect from marriage counseling?
Marriage counseling is a kind of a couple’s therapy where couples are encouraged and assisted to recognize and resolve their conflicts in a mutually conducive manner. It allows them to make thoughtful decisions and improve upon their relationship.
Q) What is Learning Disability?
Learning Disability is a neurological disorder which affects individual's basic psychological processes such as ability to read, write, spell, comprehend, understand, or to do mathematical calculations.
At what age learning disabilities are diagnosed?
Usually children with learning difficulties are diagnosed at the age of 6 years to have a more
reliable and valid test score.
How do we identify children with LD?
Children with LD can be diagnosed by psychometric testing devices such as employing standardized devices like intelligence tests, achievement tests, ability tests, personality tests.
What are the signs /symptoms of learning disabilities?
Some of the symptoms of LD include:
delayed or unclear speech, difficulty in phonemes, problem in learning shapes, colours, numbers, alphabets, difficulty in completing class work or homework, difficulty in copying from the board, poor handwriting, difficulty in writing within lines, poor retention, making a lot of spelling mistakes, difficulty following instructions, difficulty in doing math’s and so on...
What are the different kinds of Learning Disability?
Dyslexia (reading disorder)
Dysgraphia (writing disability)
Dyscalculia (disorder in mathematics)
Dyspraxia (disorder of motor movement)
What is the prognosis for LD?
Learning disabilities can be a lifelong condition. Outcome depends on the severity of the LD at school, age, intelligence, individual's socio economic status, time of intervention and so on....
What are the remedial measures for learning disabilities?
Reading skills, social skills, thinking and reasoning abilities, handwriting should be developed right from its early diagnosis. Children should be helped in overcoming deficits in their ability to listen or pay attention.
What are the special techniques or approaches for helping the learning disabled?
A- Special education
B- Multi-sensory approach
C-Individualized educational plan
Q) What is ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVE DISORDER (ADHD)?
ADHD is neurological disorder in which an individuals ability to sustain attention and concentration on a particular task gets affected.
What Are The Symptoms of ADHD?
These are children who never sit still. They are always into something or the other but they never prolong a task. They don’t pay attention to what others say and never think before the act. In school, they are often up and out of their seats in a fraction of a second. They do not do well in school and often lag behind their peers.
What are the types of ADHD?
ADHD has various forms, in which the three elements Hyperactivity, Impulsivity and Attention Deficit play a part.
At what age does the onset of ADHD usually happen?
Onset of the disorder is no later than the age of seven years.
How does ADHD affect the Executive functioning?
The symptoms of ADHD (impulsivity, over-activity and inattention) reflect impairment in several areas of executive functioning in which individuals with ADHD may have difficulty in sustaining attention, organizing, recalling and monitoring a task.
How is ADHD assessed?
ADHD is situation specific in nature at times hence evaluation should include different settings, such as home and school. The widely used assessment tools for ADHD are interviews, rating scales, direct observation and other procedures. In most case of ADHD, parents are the chief source of information.
What are the kinds of treatment modalities for ADHD?
Pharmacological Treatment is an option. Behavioral therapy (BT) helps people develop more effective ways to work on immediate issues. Social skills training can also help children learn new behaviors.
Parenting skills training offered by therapists or in special classes, gives parents tools and techniques for managing their child's behavior.
Q) What is Autistic spectrum disorder:-
ASD is described as a disorder in which three areas namely communication, social interaction and restriction of interest and behavior gets affected.
By what age can we see signs of ASD
Most of the cases manifest before the age of 3 years.
What are the common signs and Symptoms?
Some common symptoms include poor of eye contact, repetitive talk, social withdrawal as they are unable to develop age appropriate peer interaction delayed speech, repetitive motor activity like hand flapping, head rocking and preoccupation with some particular object etc.
What are the tests used?
There are many tests for screening and diagnosing ASD which must be applicable always under the trained psychologists. Some common names are The childhood autism rating scale[ CARS ] for diagnostic screening and classification of autism , Gilliam autism rating scale [ GARS] ,autism behavior checklist [ ABC] and many more.
What is Aspergers Syndrome?
These children carry abnormalities in social interaction. Restrictive, repetitive pattern of activities and interest is seen but, there is no delay in speech development and no intellectual impairment.
What are the remedial measures for ASD?
In the first stage of remedy for these special children, support from the parents is very crucial as without parental support it would be difficult to reduce the unacceptable behavior of the child. Teachers support and special education is imperative. Except in milder cases psychosocial intervention is usually combined with stimulant medication by doctors.
What is the schooling scenario for these children?
Children with ASD benefit most from studying in schools that provide a range of therapies like OT, special education, language and speech therapy. India has many special and integrated schools that are doing wonderful work with them. Along with this the work that parents can do act as a integral input in the child’s prognosis.